Homework Questions

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Please respond to the Forum question listed below. You are expected to give complete answers referring to what you have read in the “Lessons”(reading & resources). Reference to, or the use of critical thinking, analysis, what you have learned in previous courses, the media, and in your professional lives is also expected. Define the subject; make references to what you have read, what you have learned elsewhere, and then form a response.

Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words. Please respond to a least 2 other students. Response should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions. When addressing the topic questions, you are to state the question followed by your response. Do this for each question posed.

1) Discuss the similarities and/or differences between the external borders of New Europe and the U.S. – Mexico border?

2) Explain how the borders of the New Europe and the United States have changed since the “Cold War”?

Articles for weekly assignment:

Baird, T. (2016). Surveillance design communities in Europe: A network analysis. Surveillance & Society, 14(1), 34-58.

Bremberg, N. (2015). The European Union as security community-building institution: Venues, networks and co-operative security practices. Journal Of Common Market Studies,53(3), 674-692.

Gardner-Bledsoe, A. (2017). Strengthening security in an age of irregular migration flows: Considerations for applied security research. Journal of Applied Security Research, (12)1. 196-198.

Kinnvall, C. (2016). The Postcolonial has moved into Europe: Bordering, security and ethno-cultural belonging. Journal Of Common Market Studies, 54(1), 152-168.

Lehtonen, P. and Aalto, P. (2017). Smart and secure borders through automated border control systems in the EU? The views of political stakeholders in the member states.European Soceity, 28(1), 207-225.

Linnell, J. D. C., Trouwborst, A., Boitani, L., Kaczensky, P., Huber, D., Reljic, S., and Breitenmoser, U. (2016). Border security fencing and wildlife: The end of the transboundary paradigm in Eurasia? PLoS Biology, 14(6).

Loftus, B. (2015). Border regimes and the sociology of policing. Policing & Society, 25(1), 115-125.

Note this requirement – respond to at least two of your classmate’s posts.

Student #1 Joseph

Hello All,

1) Discuss the similarities and/or differences between the external borders of New Europe and the U.S. – Mexico border?

The external borders of the E.U. and the U.S.-Mexico border have definite similarities in the challenges faced, although there are significant differences in immigration policy and deterrence methods between the U.S. and the E.U. Some of the similarities include a border that contains both land and water, harsh conditions in some of the border crossing areas, and political/economic upheaval in the countries to the south. Another similarity is the rapidly changing anti-immigration climate, just a few years ago Germany opened its borders 100% to any and all immigrants, now the EU as a whole is restricting immigration and asylum requests.

There are multiple differences between the E.U. and U.S. borders. While the U.S. border is on a course towards militarization, Bremberg (2015) explains, “In the EU, this change is most obviously seen in the development of its military and civilian crisis management capacity – the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)” (p. 679). The E.U. must also contend with all of the countries that reside in the E.U. and their shifting political landscape. Each country retains autonomy when deciding if they will allow immigrants access.

One interesting border topic I recently learned about is the issue of Ireland and Brexit. There are major fears that if/when Brexit occurs, a border will have to go back up between Northern and Southern Ireland. This border may re-ignite the violence and internal terrorism that plagued Irelands for decades.

2) Explain how the borders of the New Europe and the United States have changed since the “Cold War”?

The United States has not seen significant shifts in border location since the end of the Cold War. There has been an escalation of border security and importance in American culture in the decades after the cold war, into the events on 9/11, and todays media and political climate. The European border situation is profoundly more complex and nuanced. With the end of the cold war entire countries and borders were created almost overnight. In today’s climate most borders have stabilized, with the notable exception of Russia eyeing the Ukraine. For countries that are part of the EU, borders have lost much of the historical and security based importance and are now primarily symbolic. The external border policies of EU countries and non-EU countries vary as well. One example is provided by Morris (2018), “Being in the single market means Norway respects the EU’s four freedoms – the freedom of movement of goods, services, capital and people. But that doesn’t get rid of the need for customs checks” (para. 7). While other border countries have more stringent border policies resulting in long waits, paperwork, and more intensive searches. A common theme for the more effective borders is the increased use of technology and interagency/country partnerships and agreements.

All the best,
Joe

References

Bremberg, N. (2015). The European Union as Security Community-Building Institution: Venues, Networks and Co-operative Security Practices. Journal of Common Market Studies, 53(3), 674–692. https://doi-org.ezproxy1.apus.edu/10.1111/jcms.122…

Morris, C. (2018, May 15). Brexit: What can UK learn from other external EU borders? Retrieved January 19, 2019, from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-44054594

Student #2 Andrew

Discuss the similarities and/or differences between the external borders of New Europe and the U.S. – Mexico border?

There are several things that are similar with the New Europe and U.S./Mexico borders, but there are some things that are different as well. The New Europe border lets Europeans move around much more freely in all of the European Union countries. There is absolutely no way for this type of activity to take place at the United States and Mexico border due to all the illegal activity in the areas around our southern border (Bremberg, 2015). The United States has implemented smart borders to help with immigration and to expedite trade routes. The European Union also has implemented smart borders to control the illegal immigration from other countries that are not part of the EU. The EU has a border agreement where they can share surveillance with other countries inside the EU whereas U.S and Mexico do not have such an agreement. With terrorism being a global problem, both the United States and the EU are utilizing the use of UAV’s to patrol the borders where people and vehicles can’t patrol routinely. These are just a few of the similarities and differences between our two nations borders.

Explain how the borders of the New Europe and the United States have changed since the “Cold War”?

In the United States the nothing major happened after the Cold War until the terrorist attacks of September 11. This was a major blow to America and border security on all fronts. Because of such events there will never be a free flowing or carefree border, port, or customs checkpoint within the United States. In Europe the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 put an end to the Cold War and the divisions that dated back to the second World War (Kinvall, 2016). The fall of the Communist bloc brought about the end of a bipolar world built around the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union. Since the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall, there were some countries that were created almost immediately meaning borders were made and security was implemented. Terrorism is not happening in just one country but around the world. It is probably the biggest issue and problem that the world has faced since the cold war. Every nation must come together, continue to strengthen border security, and weed out the criminals/drugs/counterfeit goods from our countries (Kinnvall, 2016).

References

Bremberg, N. (2015). The European Union as security community-building institution: Venues, networks and co-operative security practices. Journal Of Common Market Studies, 53(3), 674-692.

Kinnvall, C. (2016). The Postcolonial has moved into Europe: Bordering, security and ethno-cultural belonging. Journal Of Common Market Studies, 54(1), 152-168.

Loftus, B. (2015). Border regimes and the sociology of policing. Policing & Society, 25(1), 115-125.

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